Jumat, 06 Januari 2012

TEACHING SIMPLE PAST TENSE BY RECOUNT TEXT PAPER

TEACHING SIMPLE PAST TENSE
BY RECOUNT TEXT
PAPER

A Paper for Seminar on English Language Teaching’s Task


Compiled by:
Class 5C

Dede Tiani                              (092122102)
Dian Budiana                          (092122101)   
Milda Melina                          (092122082)
Vera Fuji Rahayu                   (092122085)
Wisnu Teja Lesmana`            (092122107)


ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL AND TEACHER’S TRAINING
SILIWANGI UNIVERSITY
2011



PREFACE

This paper is intended to assist the teachers in present or giving materials about simple past tense for their students in English’s class. The teacher will learn how to create good atmosphere in teaching their students when they are learning tenses especially simple past tense and make them understand and can practice it in daily activities.
According to Eugenia Papaioannou, Greece, “Teaching tenses can be fun if you focus on your students' experience first, present things in a nice way (NOT from the books) and practise following the same pattern before you open the coursebooks to do the exercises.”  Inspired by Papaioannou, we will try to make a teaching methode a simple past tense for Senior High School’s students fun and effectively.
Firstly, teacher must give the example about simple past tense. It can be a narrative or recount. For example teacher tell about his activities in the past. Beside that students will be involved in practicing using tense. They will asked to tell about their past activities or experiences.
The Writer realizes that this paper is far from being perfect so we will be very grateful for the criticisms and suggestions.
Finally we would like to thank to the ones who give the contributions on writing this paper.
      Tasikmalaya, 17 of October 2011
The Writer


TABLE ON CONTENTS

PREFACE........................................................................................................
TABLE ON CONTENTS................................................................................
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................
A.     Background..............................................................................................
B.     Formulation of the Problem.............................................................
C.     Aim of the Research........................................................................
D.     Uses of the Research.......................................................................

CHAPTER II MATERIAL..............................................................................
A.     Theoretical Background..................................................................
1.      Description of Simple Past Tense..............................................
a.       Definition of Simple Past Tense..........................................
b.      Form of Simple Past Tense...........................................................
c.       Uses of Simple Past Tense...................................................
2.      Description of Narrative Text....................................................
a.       Definitions of Narrative......................................................
b.      Generic Structure of Narrative......................................................
c.       Language Features of Narrative...........................................
d.      Kinds of Narrative........................................................................
3.      Definition of Teaching Learning................................................
B.     How to Teach Past Tense by Using Narrative Text..........................

CHAPTER III CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION....................................
A.     Conclusion...............................................................................................
B.     Suggestion................................................................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ENCLOSURE



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTIONS

A.     Background

English as an international language has an important role to develop science and technology in the world. English is used as a medium of communication between people in different countries. English has become the most important foreign language in Indonesia, which is taught from primary school to university.However, in senior high school, English is taught as main subject in which the government has changed the curriculum into Curriculum Based on Competence 2004 to be KTSP in 2008. According to Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2003: 36).
“The competence-basing language curriculum is a systematic draft and strategy which build the communicative competence or the competence of contextual. It means that it builds all the basis of competences themselves. They are like linguistics competences, social culture and strategies to make the benefit context.”
From the statement above, it is clear that Curriculum Based on competence 2004-2009 tries to develop and achieve the communicative competence or discourse competence and has perspective that is comprehensive to the discourse. The learners must be able to master the four skills, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, also English components such as: grammar, vocabulary, pronu Among the four skills above, writing is the most difficult one. Because it requires demonstrating the control of a number of variables simultaneously; they are control of content, format, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation spelling, etc. Nunan (1989: 35) points out, “It has been argued that that learning to write fluently and expressively is the most difficult of the macro skills for all language users regardless of whether the language in question is first, second, or foreign language.” Another opinion comes from Heaton (1989: 138). He explain that the writing skills are complex and sometimes difficult to teach, requiring mastery not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also of conceptual and judgment elements. It means that ability to write needs a special skill and process in organizing language material by using learners’ own words and ideas and to be a good composition.
According to the results of the research done by the students of IKIP Budi Utomo Malang show that in learning English, most of the students find difficulties, especially in applying grammar in their speaking and writing. So, they will make mistakes and errors. It describes that learners’ ability in English is still poor and they need to be taught more effectively.nciation, etc.
The learners often make mistakes and even errors in learning English, especially when they try to arrange sentences or use tenses in their writing. As a result, they will write sentences ungrammatically. Actually, ungrammatical sentences have great influence when the learners are writing sentences. That can be influenced by the first language which is different from the second language in written form. Therefore, the first language can interfere learners in the process of the second language. Abbort (1981: 216) wrote,
For pedagogic purposes, teachers and others more likely to be concerned with the performances of whole groups and especially with the problems they have in commons. For these purposes, we need to ensure that the data comes from fairly homogeneous groups as regards mother tongue, age, previous teaching, and if possible, intelligence. Perhaps the most important of these factors is the mother tongue, particularly if phonological errors arte being studied”.
From the statement above, it can be seen that errors in learning a second language are caused by the interference of the learners’ mother tongue. In other words, errors made by the learners sometimes are caused by use of the first language.
Making Errors are a natural and unavoidable part of the process of learning English. Many kinds of errors arise when the learners write because they do not master the English structure well. Also, errors are the inability of the students in using rules of the components and elements of the second language. Brown (1987: 170) Said that ”second language learning is a process that is clearly not unlike first language learning in its trial and errors nature”. It means that the learners cannot avoid errors in learning second language. That statement is supported by Wiganti (2000: 11)
“Many linguist and researcher have found out that learners’ errors may account the process of learning a target language, in other words, making errors is considered to be natural to the learners. More extremely, they hypothesize that errors should not be viewed as problems to be overcome, but rather as normal and inevitable features indicating the strategies that learners use.”
So almost all learners must make errors when they are learning English because it is difficult to separate error in the process of learning English.
Students’ errors are very useful ways of showing what they have and have not learnt. Dubin F. and Olshtain E. (1986: 74) reported,:   …    , today errors are viewed as an integral part of the language-learning process from which we can gain very significant insight.” It tells that errors are important to study in order to understand the process of learning. A study of learners’ errors describes what problems the learners are having now and help the teacher to plan remedial work. In addition, the teacher should not see negatively as a sign of failure but see them positively as an indication of what the teacher still needs to teach. So, if the teacher tries to prevent students; errors, he/she never finds out what they do not know.
There are four standard competences in curriculum based on competences in Curriculum Based on Competence 2004-2009. One of them is writing. In writing students are hoped to be able to express many written meanings that have purposes in communicative, text structure etc. They can develop their writing in the forms of genre (kinds of text) such as: narrative, descriptive, recount, news items, etc as a means of communications.
One of genres is recount. Non-continuous tells something happening in the present time, like: brochure, label, biography, diary, report, personal letter, etc. As it tells some events, it usually uses sequence words such as: If, while, after, before, until, etc. Then, tense used in recount text is simple present tense, because it tells present events.
To make a good composition, the students must be able to master and apply the structure correctly, especially about tense used. In this case, the tense used is simple present tense. If they cannot do that, of course, errors will arise. Automatically their writing will cause misunderstanding for the readers, because the readers cannot receive the massage or expression of their idea well. Most of the students still find problems in using it, because of their limited mastery, especially the differences between regular and irregular verb. Therefore the writer wants to analyze the errors made by the students and tries to give solutions to overcome their problems. Writer chooses the title “Teaching Simple Past Tense by Recount Text”
             
B.     Formulation of the Problem
Based on the background, the writer formulates this paper as follow “How to Teach Simple Past by Recount Text”.

C.     Aim of the Research
For teacher:
·         Teacher will know the errors that usually make among students on the use of simple past tense.
·         Teacher will be able to predict the errors that probably will happen to the students so that he will be able to overcome the troubles.
For the students:
·         The students will be able to study the simple past tense more easily.

D.     Uses of the Research
The writer hopes that the paper will give some advantages as follows:
1.      Theoretical Use
To give information about teaching simple past by recount text
2.      Practical Use
To give general description for English teachers especially about teaching past tense
3.      Empirical Use
To increase experience for the writers themselves in relation to the research ability about simple past tense



CHAPTER II
MATERIAL

A.      Theoretical Background

     In English, tense is verb forms used to express when an action or event happens. According to Hornby (1975: 78), “tense stands for a verb form or series of verb forms used to express a time relation. Whereas according to Wishon, George E. And Julia M. Burks (1980: 192), “Tense means time. However, it should be pointed out that time in relation to action is a concept that exist in the mind of speaker, reader, or listener. Tense, in actual usage, refers consistently only to grammatical forms.”

1.      Description of Simple Past Tense
     Simple past tense is one of the tenses used in communication. To describe it, the writer would explain some cases, as follows; definitions, forms, and uses of simple past tense.
a.    Definitions of Simple Past tense
In mastering simple past tense, we must know its definition. There are some definitions of simple past tense from some experts, as follows:
1)   According to Hornby (1975:85), “Simple past tense is to indicate activities or states in the past, without indicating any connection the present.”
2)   According to hewings, martin (1999: 6), ” We use the past simple for situation that existed for a period of time in the past, but not now.”
3)   According to Azar, Betty Schrampfer  (2002: 27), “The simple past indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.”
Based on the explanations above, the writer concludes that simple past tense is a verb form to indicate activities or situations that happen at a particular time in the past.
b.    Forms of Simple Past Tense
There are some forms of simple past tense. According to Thomson, A.J. and A.V. martinet (1986: 116) state
1)   Be as an auxiliary verb:

Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
I was
I was not/ wasn’t
Was I ?
You were
You were not/ weren’t
Were you?
He/ She/ It was
He/ She/ It was not/ wasn’t
Was He/ She/ It?
We were
We were not/ weren’t
Were we?
They were
They were not/ weren’t
Were they?
Negative Interrogative: was I not/ wasn’t I? Were you not/ weren’t you? Was not/ wasn’t he? Etc.


2)   Regular verb
a)    The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive:
Infinitive     : to work
Simple past : worked
b)   Verbs ending in e add d only:
Infinitive     : to loved
Simple past : loved
c)    The same form is used for all persons:
Example:
I worked
You worked
He worked
Etc.
d)   The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did not (didn’t) and the infinitive:
I did not/ didn’t work
You did not/ didn’t work
Etc.
e)    The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with did + subject + infinitive:
Example:
Did I work?
Did you work?
Etc.
f)    Negative interrogative
Example:
Did you not/ didn’t you work?

3)   Irregular verb
These vary considerably in their simple fast form:
Infinitive                     : to eat, to leave, to see, to speak
Simple past                  : ate, left, saw, spoke
The simple past form of each irregular verb must therefore be learnt, but once this is done there is no other difficulty, as irregular verbs (like regular verbs) have no inflexions in the past tense.

Based on explanation above, the writer concludes that the forms of simple past tense are affirmative, negative, interrogative, and negative interrogative forms, as follows:
1)   Affirmative forms
Examples:
You worked hard last night
Bill and jill were busy last week
2)   Negative forms
Examples:
We didn’t play football yesterday
Terry wasn’t sick last week
3)   Interrogative forms
(a) Using yes/ no questions
Examples:
Did you study english last night?
Was John in Bali last year?
(b) Using WH-Questions
Examples:
Why did she visit her uncle yesterday afternoon?
What time were they in the restaurant last night?
4)   Negative interrogative forms
(a) Using yes/ no questions
Example:
Didn’t they play basket ball last Saturday?
Wasn’t Sania here last night?
(b) Using WH-Questions
Example:
Why didn’t you stay at home last Saturday night?
Why wasn’t Mela in her room yesterday?

There are time signals used in simple past tense, as follows:

Just now                                              Last Monday
This morning                                       Last week/month/year
Yesterday                                            Three days ago
The day before yesterday                    A few weeks ago
Last night                                            many years ago, etc.

                                                            (Lado, M.J., 2005: 2-3)

c.    Uses of Simple Past Tense
There are some uses of simple past tense, According to Wishon, George E. And Julia M. Burks (1980: 195) state:
The simple past tense is used to report a state or activuty which can be described to a definite past time...The past time is also used for activities that occured over a period of time in the pat, both are now finished or that occured at intervals in the past, but don’t occur now.
            While according to Walker, Elaine and Steve Elsworth (2000:37)
1)      Completed actions
To talk about events and actions in the past that are now finished. The past simple refers to the complete event. The time or approximate time that the event took place is stated or is understood from the context. It may be in the very recent past.
Your mother phoned a few minutes ago.
Who opened this window?
Or it may be in the more distant past:
I never learnt to swim as a child.
2)      Past habit or regular event
To talk about a regular, repeated or habitual event:
He went out for a meal every evening on holiday.
He got up at 7 o’clock every morning to go to work.
Or a past habit or situation of some duration:
He worked for most of his life.
He worked there for twenty years.
3)      Past situation at a point in time
With stative verbs, to talk about a situation that existed at a certain time in the past.
In 1950, there were fewer than 50 million cars in use around the world.
At the time, I had a poorly-paid job in the local shop.
Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that basically the use of simple past tense is to talk about sitution and activity in the past.

2.      Description of Recount Text
a.      Definition of Recount
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative
b.   Generic Structure of Recount
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time
2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story
c.   Language Feature of Recount
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc
• Using simple past tense
Examples :
 
My Adventure at Leang Cave

Orientation On Sunday, my parents, my best fruend Novi, and I visited a cave at Maros called Leang-leang . It was my first time to visit the cave, better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me!
Event 1 The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings. The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, so it was taken care of. My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, while Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide. We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain. Next stop was a place where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound! The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash.
Event 2 The humans who lived here ate the shells and dumped the left overs in their ‘kitchen’. The last place was a small museum where they have skeletons of the humans who lived in the caves. The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry and weapons were placed inside glass cases for display. The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken when they did an excavation there.
Reorientation After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided it was time to go back home. We really had the time of our lives!
Jedi anda Jada 

Orientation Hai, I,m Jedi . I have a twin sister, named Jada.
Event 1 We were born on August 5, 1992. we are in the eighth grade now. Jada and I do everything together.We are in the same class.We dress alike.We look the same.We always get other people confused.This really makes Jada and I laugh.Teachers and friends always get us mixed up at school.even our father has troubles telling us apart.Our mother doesn’t. She alays know which twin is which.Jada and I often try to confuse her, but it has never happened.
Event 2 Mother came to the rescue, and refused to make us cut our hair.We were happy just the way we were and didn,t want to change.Our dad just shook his head. He would have to stay confused.Jada and I didn’t care.
Reorientation : We knew which one was which, and that was all that mattered.
A Visit to a Sheep Property

ORIENTATION : Last holidays I visited a sheep property. I helped in the shearing sheds and in the yards.
EVENT  1 : On the first day the Merino wethers were crutched. I helped by sweeping up after the rouseabout picked up the wool pieces. Shearers start early (at 7.30 am)
EVENT 2 : After lunch, we started shearing the lambs. There were more than 400 so we didn’t finish until the next day. Once again I was sweeping and picking up dags.
EVENT 3 : I was tired by the end of the day in the shed but our work wasn’t finished. We all had to help to get the wethers and lambs back into the paddocks. As well, we had to get a mob of ewes and their lambs into the yards for shearing the next day. Then it was time for tea (that’s what my nanna calls dinner).
REORIENTATION : This was a very long day but I enjoyed it a lot.

Our trip to the Blue Mountain

Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

Event  1 On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats.

Event  2 On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower.

Reorientation In the afternoon we went home.

1.    Definition of Teaching Learning
            Teaching-learning process is the heart of education. On it depends the fulfillment of the aims & objectives of education. It is the most powerful instrument of education to bring about desired changes in the students. Teaching learning are related terms. In teaching - learning process, the teacher, the learner, the curriculum & other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goal. Let us first understand in short about learning, teaching and then teaching-learning relation. Learning can be defined as the relatively permanent change in an individual's behavior or behavior potential (or capability) as a result of experience or practice (i.e., an internal change inferred from overt behavior). This can be compared with the other primary process producing relatively permanent change-- maturation--that results from biological growth and development. Therefore, when we see a relatively permanent change in others, or ourselves we know that the primary cause was either maturation (biology) or learning (experience). As educators, there is nothing we can do to alter an individual’s biology; the only influence open to use is to provide an opportunity for students to engage in experiences that will lead to relatively permanent change.
Teaching then, can be thought of as the purposeful direction and management of the learning process. Note that teaching is not giving knowledge or skills to students; teaching is the process of providing opportunities for students to produce relatively permanent change through the engagement in experiences provided by the teacher.
Definition of learning given by various psychologists:
• Daniel Bell- Learning is modification due to energies of organism and environment impinging on the organism itself.
• Gates- Learning is modification of behaviour through experience.
Crow – Crow- Learning involves the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitude.
• Ruch- Learning is a process, which bring about changes in the individual way of responding as a result of contact with aspects of environment.
• Skinner – Learning as acquisition and retention.
• Encyclopedia of Education Research- Learning refers to growth of interest, knowledge and skills and to transfer these to new situation.

B.       How to Teach Past Tense by Using Recount Text


         1)             Give students a text containing the simple past tense sentence.

Sample Text

A Trip to Surabaya City

Last week I had a long trip to Surabaya by motorcycle. Because I went there there was a duty from my school to have Home Teachers' Training Department of Religion at the Office on Jl. Juanda. That was tiring, but I like it. I left around 2 am Bondowoso Why did I start the journey at very early morning? Because the meeting would be started at 8 o'clock. I thought I Would not be late leaving for Surabaya at That time. I needed 6 hours to Arrive in Surabaya. That was hot and dumps. I stopped at a petrol station to wash my hands and clean my face in the public toilets there. I asked someone there where Jl. Juanda. He toll me the street. Ten minutes later I found the building. Luckily, I arrived there at 8 sharp. The meeting started Sooner after I Entered the room.

Go Camping

[Orientation] Last weekend, my friends and I went camping. We reached the camping ground after We Walked for about one and a half hours from the parking lot. We built the camp next to a small river. It was getting darker and colder, so We built a camp fire. [EVENT] The next day, We spent our time observing plantation and Insects while the girls were the resource persons Preparing meals. In the afternoon We went to the river and caught some fish for supper. At night, We held a camp fire night. We the, danced, read poetry, played magic tricks, and even some of us performed a standing comedy. [REORIENTATION] On Monday, We packed our bags and got ready to go home.

 2)             Ask students to understand the contents of the text. For example with the strategy of giving multiple choice questions, true - false, or essay about the content of reading.
  3)             Have students underline the sentence past tense. If they do not understand, give examples and let them work within 5 minutes to find a suitable example sentences.
   4)             Ask students to name words that they find. If necessary ask them to write on the board.
   5)             Take a sentence as an example and insert into a table that you have created on the board.

Example:

I
Left
Bondowoso
Around 2 a.m.





6)             Have students enter the words below into the appropriate table.

• She

• Shinta

• Went to

• Surabaya

• On Sunday

• They

• Campsite

• In the morning

• We

• You

• He

• At Night

• Visited

• Walked to

• New York

Give an example. For example the New York entered into a column Bondowoso.

I
Left
Bondowoso
Around 2 a.m.


Newyork



         7)             Give them 10 minutes to work in groups or with friends bench. Monitorlah their work but do not interrupt until they are completed.
   8)             Correction together or have the students put the words into an existing table on the board in accordance with their job.
   9)             If the finished show where acting as a Subject, Predicate, Object or Complement.
   10)      Ask students to make sentences combined by taking the word of each column and put them into sentences.
   11)      The simple past tense sentence Conclude by making a simple formula on the blackboard: S + Verb 2


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.    Conclusion
                  Therefore to tech the simple past tense by using Narrative text will be effective because  Its function as to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Automatically the sentences form of narrative text using past tense. We are not need to make an example sentence. That’s enough to take an example sentence in the Narrative text.

B.     Suggestion
                  To teach the Simple Past Tense in Narrative text at the beginning of the teaching we should not immediately give a formula of the Simple Past Tense, because it will make the students confused. And before going into teaching materials, a greeting and expense required to help optimize the learning process, this will create conditions for pupils calm and comfortable in accepting the learning materials. Furthermore, when we give them a text narrative to understand in a certain period of time we should not continue to provide direction, but the giving should periodically landing. Because giving periodic direction will not divide the concentration of the students in understanding the text.
                  Before the students were given the task to find the sentences Simple Past Tense, we should give some examples of the Simple Past Tense sentences. It is intended that the students are easier to search for phrases in text Simple Past Tense. Analyzing sentences in Simple Past Tense accompanied giving formula will greatly help students understand sentences in Simple Past Tense.

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