Minggu, 29 Januari 2012

Funtional Grammar

FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR

1.    Explain the term of functional grammar!

Functional Grammar is actually the name of a set of linguistic theory in general can be classified into linguistic functionalism, including functional discourse grammar developed by Dutch linguists Simon Dik and systemic functional grammar developed by the British linguist Michael A. K. Halliday.

In general, functional grammar is a theory which attempts to explain the composition of natural language in terms of functionality. Because of that, then the development of this theory focuses on three interrelated things, namely (1) natural language functionality, (2) functionality relationships that occur at different levels of grammatical structure, and (3) target to be achieved, namely this theory  as an analytical tool for various aspects of language and language usage.

To realize the above matters, the development of theories of Functional Grammar must meet three standards of adequacy, namely:

a.    Typological adequacy. That is, the rules and principles of this theory should be applied in any natural language.
b.    Pragmatic adequacy. That is, any formula put forward by this theory should be able to provide an understanding of how linguistic expressions can be effectively used in communicative interactions.
c.    Psychological adequacy. That is, anything that put forward by the Functional Grammar shall be in accordance with the things that has been known about the psychological processing mechanisms that occur in natural language usage.

Because the idea of the functionality occupies a very important position in Functional Grammar, then the rules and principles formulated in terms Functional Grammar -functional terms. In Functional Grammar, there are three levels of functions of interest, namely:

a.    Function Semantics (Agent, Patient, Recipient, etc..). This function defines the role played by participants in an event or action as indicated by the predicate.
b.    Syntactic functions (Subject and Object). This function defines how point of view of an event or action is manifested in linguistic expressions.
c.    Pragmatic function (Themes and Tail, Topic and Focus). This function defines the status of constituent information and linguistic expressions linking expressions in discourse / discourse in progress with the Speaker and Speech Receiver in the ongoing verbal interaction.

To be used as an analytical tool for various aspects of language and language use, then the Functional Grammar at the same time seeks to maximize the level of adequacy of typological and linguistic analysis to minimize the level of abstraction. This work is done by reducing the level of abstraction (rules, mechanisms, or procedures), so the distance between the structures postulated in a particular language based on this theory with actual linguistic expressions which are prepared using the terms-terms this structure can be narrowed. Restrictions abstraction done by following the following principles:
a.    Avoiding transformations (in the sense of structural change operation);
b.    Avoid empty elements in the main structures that do not get the expression;
c.    Reject filter device (filter devices);
d.    Not implement an abstract lexical decomposition (instead, the semantic relationships between words is done through the definition of the meaning.)

2.    Why does Functional Grammar relate with semantic?

Because Semantics is part of the grammar that examines the meaning in a particular language, discusses the significance, both meaning of the word, the meaning of phrases, the meaning of the clause, sentence meaning, and meaning of the discourse as a complete unit of language, seeking the origin and development of the meaning of a word..

3.    Explain the relationship between func. Grammar and syntax!

Functional Grammar is a way of giving students a language for talking about the different language features they see in different texts even syntax is concerned with the discovery of basic sentence types and with the description of the possible substitution for each element of the basic types beside that Syntax is the study and rules of the relation of words to another as expressions of ideas and part of structures of sentences; the study and science of sentence construction. So, Syntax is the branch of grammar which is concerned with the study of the arrangement of word in sentences and of the means by which such relationship are shown

4.    Explain briefly the term of pragmatic, semantic, syntax, and phonology!

a.    Pragmatic
Pragmatics is the study of the relationship between language and context of the underlying explanation of language understanding. Here, "the understanding or comprehension of language" refers to the fact that to understand something of expression or speech language knowledge is also needed beyond the meaning of words and grammatical relations, namely to do with the context of its use. Pragmatics can also be interpreted (1) field that examines the meaning of the speaker, (2) field that examines the meaning according to context, (3) field of study that exceeds the meaning of spoken, examines the meaning of which is communicated or communicated by the speaker; and (4) the field of researching forms of expression according to social distance that limits the participants who engage in certain conversations. Tendencies in pragmatics is divided into two parts, first, by using a social point of view, connecting with the pragmatic meaning of the speaker (speaker meaning), and second, by using a cognitive perspective, linking with the pragmatic interpretation of the utterance.

b.    Semantic
The word semantics is actually a technical term that refers to the study of meaning. This term is a new term in English. Linguists provide semantic meaning as a branch of linguistics which studies the relationship between linguistic signs or lingual signs with things that are meaningful. Another term that once used the same thing is semiotics, semiology, semasiology, and Semitic. Talk about the meaning of a word into semantic objects. Semantics is a very broad field of study because it also dealt with aspects of structure and function of language that can be connected with psychology, philosophy, and anthropology. Semantics assumes that language consists of structures that reveal meaning when connected with the objects in the world of human experience. "Semantics is the study of the relationship between a linguistic distinction with the relationship of mental or symbols in speech activity." The question of meaning becomes a semantic matter. Based on this explanation can be concluded that the semantics are talking about the meaning of linguistic sub disciplines.

c.    Syntax
-    Syntax is a branch of grammar structures to talk about sentences, clauses, and phrases. Also be interpreted as a syntactic buffer subsystem that includes language about the words that are often considered part of the grammar of morphological and linguistic branch of learning about words.
-    Syntax is the branch of grammar which is concerned with the study of the arrangement of word in sentences and of the means by which such relationship are shown (Hartman and Stork).
-    Syntax is concerned with the discovery of basic sentence types and with the description of the possible substitution for each element of the basic types (Mario Pei and Frank Gaynor)
-    Syntax is the study and rules of the relation of words to another as expressions of ideas and part of structures of sentences; the study and science of sentence construction (Archibald A. Hill)
In short, Syntax is the way in which the words are put together to make meaningful sentence.

d.    Phonology
Phonology is the scientific study of organization of speech sounds in certain language. It is a cover term of both Phonetics and Phonemics.
 Phonetics is universal; it is not addressed to certain language. It is the study of anatomy, in other words, it is study of the speech organs and how they produce speech sounds.
The sound of speech can be studied in three different ways. Acoustic phonetic is the study how speech sounds are transmitted. Auditory phonetic is the study of how speech sounds are heard. Articulatory phonetic is the study of how speech sounds are produced by human speech apparatus.
Phonemic is specific, it is the study of the function of sounds in certain language.

5.    Make rules of grammar for the following tense:

a.    Phrases
1)    Definition
A phrase is a sequence of two or more words that make up a grammatical construction, usually lacking a finite verb and hence not a complete clause or sentence:
Phrase is a group of words that doesn’t consist of subject and predicate which can’t stand alone.
2)    Form
The form phrase is Head, Modifier and Determiner
Example: A beautiful flower in the garden
A= determiner
Beautiful= modifier
Flower= head
In the garden= adverb
3)    Classification
Phrases are classified into:
a)    Noun Phrase : Phrase which is function as noun
    Common noun phrase
    Infinitive phrase
    Gerundial Phrase
b)    Verb Phrase: Phrase which is function as verb
c)    Adjectival Phrase: Phrase which is function as adjective
d)    Adverbial phrase: Phrase which is function as adverb
e)    Prepositional Phrase: Phrase which is function as preposition
4)    Examples
1.    Noun Phrases
a.    Ali went to the store for some books.
b.    My new car near the tree is old enough.
c.    The desk in this room is small.
d.    Increasing English Language ability is need practicing English effectively
e.    To be able reach your dream needs hard work
2.    Verb Phrase
a.    When people would come upon Bigfoot, they would take off after it.
b.    They wanted to catch up what kind of creature it was
3.    Adjectival Phrase
a.    Books in black and red were the clerk's delight.
b.    The girl with long hair is my friend.
4.    Adverbial Phrase
a.    He shouted on house top
b.    Henry fishes in the big lake.
c.    He put the money into his pocket.
5.    Prepositional phrase
a.    The report will be sent in a few days.
b.    He is sometimes angry with his wife.
c.    I'm sorry for having come late.
d.    The traffic sign points to the left.

b.    Clauses

a.    Definition
Clause is a groups of words that consist of at least a subject and a predicate which can’t stand alone. It will be meaningless/ doesn’t have meaning.

b.    Form

Clause divided into to form:
1.    Independent clause (main clause)
2.    Dependent clause (Sub- clause)
If I were rich, I would buy expensive house
If I were rich= dependent clause
I would buy expensive house= independent clause

c.    Classification

Clause classified into:
1.    Noun Clause: clause that function as noun of a sentence
2.    Adjective Clause : clause that function as adjective of a sentence
3.    Adverbial Clause : is a dependent clause used as an adverb.

d.    Examples

1.    Noun clause:
a.    It is disappointing that Doni left me
b.    I can prove that Ari love me

2.    Adjective Clause
a.    Mrs. Susan whose husband is a professor is a business woman
b.    The beautiful girl who wearing glasses is my sister

3.    Adverbial Clause
a.    Let me know when you have finished
b.    Come back as soon as you can
c.    After he had had supper he went to bed
c.    Sentences

1.    Defitnition
Sentence is a set of words consist of at least one subject and one predicate/ verb and has a complete meaning.

2.    Form
Sentence form is subject+ predicate + object/complement
Susan read a novel
Susan= subject
Read= predicate
A novel= object
a.    Affirmative sentence (subject+ predicate+ object/ complement)
Susan work in a big company
b.    Negative sentence (subject+ not+ predicate+ object/ complement)
Susan doesn’t work in a big company
c.    Interrogative Sentence ( To be+ subject+ object/complement)
Does susan work in a big company?

3.    Classification
a.    Simple sentence
Simple sentence is a sentence that consist of one subject and one finite verb (independent clause).
    We go to school everyday
    She gave me a ring
    We eat rice everyday
b.    Compound sentences
Compound sentence is the combination of two or more simple sentences. Thus, it contains more than one independent clause. Coordinating conjunction are, and, but, so, for.
    The man is rich, but he is miserly
    Susan has much money so she buy everything
c.    Complex sentence
A complex sentence contains one main clause and one or more dependent clause. Coordinating conjunction, such as, after, although, as, if etc.
    Because she is very rich, she gives me a house
    She reads novel whenever she wants
    They are good friends although they fight constantly
d.    Compound- Complex sentence
Compound-complex contains at least two main clauses and leas one sub clause
    After I go to the supermarket, I visit my grandmother and I give her some fruits
    Although the fruits growers worked long hours, they seemed to enjoy their work, and they usually had a long vocation period during the winter month.

6.    Explain briefly the term of prefixes, infixes and sub fixes! Make example in sentences form!

a.    Prefixes
A prefix is a group of letters added before a word or base to alter its meaning and form a new word. A prefix is a group of letters attached to the beginning of a root or word (or even group of words) serving to modify and/or extend meaning. Prefixes generally have an easily understood meaning in and of themselves, which they apply to continue he root word to which they are affixed. For example, “un” is a negative prefix which will change the otherwise positive word “happy” into “unhappy”. Large- enlarge
1)    Advantage- disadvantage
Smoking is very disadvantages for our health
2)    Fortunate- unfortunate
Unfortunately, she doesn’t get a good value in speaking subject
3)    Wife- ex wife
Mrs. Sinta is Mr. Bret’s ex wife
4)    Happy- unhappy
She feel unhappy when Robert came to this house
5)    Sense- nonsense
What she said is nonsense

b.    Infixes
An affix that is inserted the word to create a new word or intensify meaning. The process of inserting an infix is called in fixation.
Here is some list by James McMillan
1)    Awful- beawfullyware
2)    Bleed- absobleedinglutely
3)    Damn-abdamnsurd
4)    Fucking- somefuckingplace
5)    Jolly- theojollylogical
6)    Goddamn- ingoddamnconsistent
7)    Damn- abdamnsurd
8)    Bleep-fivebleepmile

c.    Suffixes
A suffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways:
1.    Inflectional (do not change the meaning of the word)
a)    changing singular to plural (dog-dogs)
Susan keeps10 dogs in her house
There are three apples in the table
I take those book for profesor
b)    changing present to past tense (stop-stopped)
She stopped in the Chinese restaurant last night
Pizza was delivered by Michael family
Susan learned English pronunciation
In this case the basic meaning of the word does not change.
2.    Derivational (the new word has a new meaning, derived from the original word). Examples:
a)    (work-worker)
He is a worker in this house
b)    Part- partner
My new partner in solving the case is Mr. Bret

7.    Make an example of descriptive text! Focuses on the grammar (present tense)

Sandri Suhermawan
Sandri Suhermawan is my ex- boyfriend. He was born in March 24 1988. He is very tall approximately 172 cm height. He is thin with the short hair. He wears glasses with split eyes. He has a straight nose and light skin. He is very kind, funny but little selfish. Now, he works as a teacher in SMK Negeri Salopa I.

8.    Make an example of narrative text! Focuses on the use grammar (past tense)!

Rainbow
Hundreds of years ago, there lived a poor farmer with seven daughters in a village so quiet and peaceful. Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, orange, purple, and white are the names of the seven daughters of poor farmers. At first they were very happy life, but suddenly disaster that destroyed the village to attack a very long drought. The animals and plants that exist in the village had died one by one because of thirst. many residents who had left the village, but died on the way because their body getting weaker. But there is one way that can restore the village as before, namely by making a large bonfire in the middle of the field and the seven daughters of poor farmers plunge into the fire because it is believed that the seventh daughter has an energy that is able to remove the curse from the village. With a sincere heart the seventh daughter willingly sacrifice themselves to remove the curse. Witnessed all the villagers and beloved father, the seventh daughter had jumped into the fire and turns right, after the fire was extinguished, the rain fell and wet the village. From a distance looks different colors are beautiful and match the color of the seventh daughter who jumped into the fire. even call it a rainbow society.

9.    Make five examples in sentences form of the zero clauses

a.    Susan coming from England is a doctor
b.    The novel given to you is Robert’s
c.    Ari I know he clever
d.    The horse raced past the barn fell.
e.    The car broken on side way is Mr. Thomson’s

10.    Make two dialogue practices dealing with the use of grammar in the sentences form!

At the restaurant
Waiter    : Good afternoon mam, ready to order?
Mrs. Tiens    : Good Afternoon, all right, I want Steak with fried potatoes and do not spicy.
Waiter    : and for drinking mam?
Mrs. Tiens    : Avocado juice.
Waiter    : all right, No spicy steak with potatoes and avocado juice. Wait a minute mam.
Mrs. Tiens    : all right.
Waiter    : this is it! enjoying the foods mam..
Mrs. Tiens    : Waiter!, please the bill, how much is it?
Waiter        : it’s 30000 rupiahs.
Mrs. Tiens    : all right.
Water        : thanks you, come back again..

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